Reference Without Referents

Reference Without Referents Reference is a central topic in philosophy of language and has been the main focus of discussion about how language relates to the world R M Sainsbury sets out a new approach to the concept which pr

  • Title: Reference Without Referents
  • Author: R.M. Sainsbury
  • ISBN: 9780199230402
  • Page: 156
  • Format: Paperback
  • Reference is a central topic in philosophy of language, and has been the main focus of discussion about how language relates to the world R M Sainsbury sets out a new approach to the concept, which promises to bring to an end some long standing debates in semantic theory There is a single category of referring expressions, all of which deserve essentially the same kindReference is a central topic in philosophy of language, and has been the main focus of discussion about how language relates to the world R M Sainsbury sets out a new approach to the concept, which promises to bring to an end some long standing debates in semantic theory There is a single category of referring expressions, all of which deserve essentially the same kind of semantic treatment Included in this category are both singular and plural referring expressions Aristotle, The Pleiades , complex and non complex referring expressions The President of the USA in 1970, Nixon , and empty and non empty referring expressions Vulcan, Neptune Referring expressions are to be described semantically by a reference condition, rather than by being associated with a referent In arguing for these theses, Sainsbury s book promises to end the fruitless oscillation between Millian and descriptivist views Millian views insist that every name has a referent, and find it hard to give a good account of names which appear not to have referents, or at least are not known to do so, like ones introduced through error Vulcan , ones where it is disputed whether they have a bearer Patanjali and ones used in fiction Descriptivist theories require that each name be associated with some body of information These theories fly in the face of the fact names are useful precisely because there is often no overlap of information among speakers and hearers The alternative position for which the book argues is firmly non descriptivist, though it also does not require a referent A much broader view can be taken of which expressions are referring expressions not just names and pronouns used demonstratively, but also some complex expressions and some anaphoric uses of pronouns Sainsbury s approach brings reference into line with truth no one would think that a semantic theory should associate a sentence with a truth value, but it is commonly held that a semantic theory should associate a sentence with a truth condition, a condition which an arbitrary state of the world would have to satisfy in order to make the sentence true The right analogy is that a semantic theory should associate a referring expression with a reference condition, a condition which an arbitrary object would have to satisfy in order to be the expression s referent Lucid and accessible, and written with a minimum of technicality, Sainsbury s book also includes a useful historical survey It will be of interest to those working in logic, mind, and metaphysics as well as essential reading for philosophers of language.

    Reference Reference is a relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object The first object in this relation is said to refer to the second object. Referent A referent r f r n t is a person or thing to which a name a linguistic expression or other symbol refers For example, in the sentence Mary saw me, the referent of the word Mary is the particular person called Mary who is being spoken of, while the referent of the word me is the person uttering the sentence. Reference definition of reference by The Free Dictionary a Significance for a specified matter relation or relationship Her speeches have special reference to environmental policy. Pronoun Reference TIP Sheets Butte College TIP Sheet PRONOUN REFERENCE Pronouns are indispensable they replace nouns in our conversation and writing, keeping us from saying things like this Writing Concise Sentences CommNet In addition to reading this section of the Guide and taking the quizzes at its conclusion, we urge you to visit William Strunk s Elements of Style, which has had a salutary effect on several generations of writers who have bought the little book, and which is now, thanks to the Bartleby Project, online. Howard Wettstein UCR Department of Philosophy Professor Larry Wright Retires and named Professor of Graduate Division Professor Larry Wright joined UCR in He was the longest reigning faculty in the UCR philosophy department in his tenure. How many major races are there in the world World Calling someone racist that explains all the fake science and imaginary history you are referencing, without giving examples of course, because there are none. EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION Reference For Business Employees receive compensation from a company in return for work performed While most people think compensation and pay are the same, the fact is that compensation is much than just the monetary rewards provided by an employer. Music, Emotion and Language Using Music to Communicate ABSTRACT There has yet to be a culture discovered which lacks music Music is a part of our existence, but we do not fully understand it In this paper, working in the tradition of Aristotle, Wittgenstein and Langer, I elucidate some of the connections between music and the emotions Using semantics Definition Theories Britannica Semantics, also called semiotics, semology, or semasiology, the philosophical and scientific study of meaning in natural and artificial languages.

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